So this is one of the easiest chapters in my opinion since we are well versed with the I/O devices we use in our daily lives but its also one of the most fun because we get to look at all the cool new tech. As I have previously stated, remaining relevant and abreast of tecnology is now our professional responsibility (we will see it is a component of the ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct). In this item’s sub-menu you will find some cool and even mind-blowing emergent I/O technologies as our world is about to change even more so please make sure you have a look.
While we discuss user input/output here let’s recall we presented that computing is comprised of Input -> Processing -> Output (IPO for this lecture) and this occurs at various scales. As examples, recall IPO at the discrete CPU level in the Fetch Execute Cycle simulation demonstration. Computer or mobile device I/O is accomplished with a user keyboard and display or touch screen. On a larger scale we observe Information System IPO where you can purchase something from Amazon and your purchase creates a transaction that among other things generates a bill, a confirmation email with tracking and the shipment as output.
Nature of Information
We will discuss ethics and Digital Rights Management (DRM) throughout this course but as a basis we should recognize the difference between digital and physical items.
There is a fundamental difference between Physical entities and Information. Physical items:
Are replicated at the expense of the manufacturer
Exist at a tangible location
When sold, the seller no longer owns the thing
In contrast, information:
Never wears out, (though it can become obsolete or untrue)
Can be replicated at virtually no cost without limit
Exists in the ether
When sold, the seller still retains the information, (This ownership provides little value if the ability of others to copy it is not limited)
Often costly to produce, but cheap to reproduce, therefore pricing is set to recover the sunk cost of its initial production and is typically based on the value to the consumer.
Comparison of the economics of things with the economics of information. Philip Evans and Thomas Wurster, Blown to Bits (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2000).
Textbook Chapter 4 Presentation
Now at the user level we talk about this user computer interaction as the Human Computer Interface (HCI). As a basis let’s see what the text presents and following this we will move on the emergent technology in the submenu.
Continuing on… we quickly identify that the text is woefully out of date even though it is the 2013 14th edition so let’s really explore where we are and where we are going. To this extent let’s explore how I/O is changing for the consumer and business by looking at emergent technologies in the sub-menu acknowledging and remaining aware of the following ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct tenets noting both tenets have application to Systems Analysis & Design coming in a few weeks.
2.2 Acquire and maintain professional competence.
Excellence depends on individuals who take responsibility for acquiring and maintaining professional competence. A professional must participate in setting standards for appropriate levels of competence, and strive to achieve those standards. Upgrading technical knowledge and competence can be achieved in several ways:doing independent study; attending seminars, conferences, or courses; and being involved in professional organizations.
2.5 Give comprehensive and thorough evaluations of computer systems and their impacts, including analysis of possible risks.
Computer professionals must strive to be perceptive, thorough, and objective when evaluating, recommending, and presenting system descriptions and alternatives. Computer professionals are in a position of special trust, and therefore have a special responsibility to provide objective, credible evaluations to employers, clients, users, and the public. When providing evaluations the professional must also identify any relevant conflicts of interest, as stated inimperative 1.3.
As noted in the discussion of principle 1.2 on avoiding harm, any signs of danger from systems must be reported to those who have opportunity and/or responsibility to resolve them. See the guidelines for imperative 1.2 for more details concerning harm,including the reporting of professional violations.